By Todd Johnson, Feng Liu, Richard S. Newfarmer, World Bank
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Additional info for Clear water, blue skies: China's environment in the new century
The National Environmental Protection Agency, established in 1988 as an independent agency, is the secretariat for the state Environmental Protection Commission. The agency's primary functions are to disseminate national environmental policy and regulations, collect environmental data from and provide training and administrative support to local environmental protection bureaus, and provide technical and policy advice to the State Environmental Protection Commission o both national and international environmental issues.
Moreover, increasing resources are being invested in environmental protection, with record amounts planned during the Ninth Five-Year Plan. Finally, and perhaps most important, economic reforms have helped increase the allocative efficiency of the economy. 1 Government efforts to address China's environmental problems, 1979-97 1979 Environmental Protection Law (Trial) establishes a general legal framework for regulating environmental degradation 1996 State Council approves "Ninth Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection for 2010," a first in national planning history, and two supplement documents"Total Emission Quantity Control Plan for Major Pollutants" and ''Trans-century Green-Engineering Plan" 1982 Marine Environment Protection Law promulgated Amended Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law adds provisions for controlling river basing pollution and imposes tougher regulations for protecting sources of drinking water 1983 Government declared environmental protection a basic national policy and formulates three policy principles for controlling pollution Fourth National Environmental Protection Conference: Party Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng deliver keynote speeches calling for more stringent pollution control 1984 Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law promulgated State Council issues Decisions Regarding Several Issues of Environmental Protection, laying out guidelines for achieving the environmental targets of the Ninth Five-Year Plan 1987 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law promulgated Government initiates a nationwide campaign to closeheavily polluting township and village enterprises; to date more than 60,000 have been closed 1989 Environmental Protection Law revised and formallypromulgated, and eight environmental managementprograms endorsed 1997 Government announces that China will phase out leaded gasoline by 2000; implementation has begun in Beijing 1992 China among the first nations to act on the Rio agenda: issues "Ten Strategic Policies for Development and the Environment" China Environmental Protection Action Plan formulated 1994 State Council approves "China Agenda 21White Paper on Population, Environment and Development," which lays out major policies for sustainable development 1995 Amended Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law includes tougher regulations for controlling sulfurdioxide Solid Waste Pollution Prevention and Control Law promulgated Source: World Bank staff.
These indoor air pollutants contribute to high rates of respiratory disease, the leading cause of death in rural areas and the third leading cause in cities. 0Note: Class 1 are tourist, historic, and conservation areas. Class 2 are residential urban and rural areas. a. Since China does not have annual standards for total suspended particulates, it has been assumed that the same ratio between daily and annual standards for sulfur dioxide applies to total suspended particulates. b. c. Source: WHO and UNEP 1992; World Bank staff estimates.
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