By C. N. R. Rao

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The first drug she was asked to evaluate was thalidomide, a sedative prescribed to pregnant women for relief from morning sickness. The drug had been marketed to the masses in West Germany, where it had first been developed, and in many other countries, including Canada. 3 Khorana, Har Gobind Frances Kelsey and the pharmacologist and chemist who assisted her in the review of thalidomide were immediately concerned that the information that had been provided by the drug firm did not prove the drug’s safety.

The atoms recoiling after the nuclear reaction were caught on metalized Mylar tape, which was then moved past a series of ␣-detectors, and the decays of a few new atoms of element 103 (257103 and 258103), having half-lives of seconds or less, were recorded. The element is named after Ernest O. Lawrence, the inventor of the cyclotron and the founder of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. “Lawrencium” was suggested and accepted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, but the originally suggested symbol of Lw was changed to Lr.

Student, in early 1930. perpendicular: condition in which two lines (or linear entities like chemical bonds) intersect at a 90-degree angle The first “cyclotron,” as it came to be known, consisted of a flat glass cylinder containing two semicircular D-shaped electrodes. These electrodes (called “dees”) were attached to a radio-frequency oscillator that would cause them to alternate polarity rapidly between positive and negative charges. A strong electromagnet, with 4-inch pole faces above and below the apparatus, created a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the electrodes.

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