By Sharam Hekmat

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This means that the same global variable or function may not be defined more than once at the global level. ) Global entities are generally accessible everywhere in the program. Each block in a program defines a local scope . Thus the body of a function represents a local scope. The parameters of a function have the same scope as the function body. Variables defined within a local scope are visible to that scope only. Hence, a variable need only be unique within its own scope. Local scopes may be nested, in which case the inner scopes override the outer scopes.

Any changes made by the function to a reference parameter is in effect directly applied to the argument. Reference parameters will be further discussed in Chapter 5. Within the context of function calls, the two styles of passing arguments are, respectively, called pass-by-value and pass-by-reference. It is perfectly valid for a function to use pass-by-value for some of its parameters and pass-by-reference for others. The former is used much more often in practice. , outside functions and classes) is said to have a global scope .

14 // gives 3 as an unsigned short As shown by these examples, the built-in type identifiers can be used as type operators. , take one operand) and appear inside brackets to the left of their operand. This is called explicit type conversion. 14 In some cases, C++ also performs implicit type conversion. This happens when values of different types are mixed in an expression. 0 // i receives 10 // means: i = int(double(i) + d) In the last example, i + d involves mismatching types, so i is first converted to double (promoted) and then added to d.

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