By Karl Leidlmair

The current publication contains a set of papers facing the reassessment of pondering in Cognitive technology and in Philosophy at the present time.

Still depending on easy assumptions of Cartesian philosophy, Cognitive technology took over the error of classical computational types. rather than being taken care of as mere or natural factors of psychological procedures with hindsight, those versions have been mistakenly used as roughly literal causal descriptions of the (working of the) brain. a transparent perception into the relevance of embodied and embedded wisdom isn't just a vital subject in AI study; it will possibly turn into a motive force for a reassessment of philosophy. Philosophy, that's suffering from the 2 contrary possible choices of cultural relativism and rationalism, either one of that have became out to be useless ends, is short of a reassessment of reasoning. what's wanted is a reasoning irrespective of final purposes which even as is grounded (and doesn’t fall into the catch of cultural relativism).

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But Comte reverted to meritocracy. He visualized handing social problems over to savants, social scientific intellectuals, a move which falls under Dewey’s criticism of the idea of the “benevolent despot”. It might seem that this same criticism cannot be voiced against Mill, who as much as Dewey was to do, valued active participation in all aspects of the democratic process. ), F. J. Skrupskelis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), p. 16. 30 H. Putnam of methodological individualism so characteristic of classical empiricism – that we would be able to derive social laws (via the hoped for reduction of sociology to psychology) which could then be applied to particular social problems.

8 The similarities between the Platonic enlightenment and the seventeenth and eighteenth century Enlightenment extend farther: there is the same enthusiasm for the new science (in Plato’s case, enthusiasm for Euclidean geometry) and there is the same refusal to allow questions of ethics and political philosophy to be decided by an appeal to religious texts and/or myths. Yet there is also a very large difference. In Plato’s view, what makes a state (ideally) legitimate is that it is ruled by a class of people (who must be philosophers) who alone have the capacity reliably to discern the nature of the Good – which, in Greek thought, means above all the nature of the best life for human beings – together with the fact that the other components of the state function properly under the guidance of the philosopher-rulers.

R. g. to Rescher and Hesse) the correspondence theory of truth is rejected. We might however qualify opinions about states and relationships in the external world as correct or incorrect showing that we can in a remarkable measure talk about “how the world is” (whatever that means, Almeder does not explain this more closely – and this might be the critical point). Blind realism leads to the consequence that we cannot really justifiably say or somehow pick out which of our current equally figuring opinions would correctly describe the external world, but we would know that there is that external world, we could only not determine which theory is the correct one, since we have no independent possibility to select the one which guarantees a correct access to reality.

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