By Zong-Yi Li, Ann H. Milam (auth.), Robert E. Anderson, Matthew M. LaVail, Joe G. Hollyfield (eds.)

In 1984, we prepared a two-day symposium on retinal degenerations as a part of the biennial assembly of the VI overseas Society for Eye examine, held in Alicante, Spain. The good fortune of this primary assembly ended in the second one held, years later in Sendai, Japan, prepared as a satellite tv for pc of the VII ISER. We have been lucky that those conferences all started at a time of lively study job within the region of retinal degenerations, because of the monetary aid of the Retinitis Pigmentosa starting place and the powerful encouragement of its medical director, Dr. Alan Laties. major advances have been made in order that each years scientists have been wanting to meet to percentage their findings. The courses incorporated displays via either easy and scientific researchers with abundant time for casual discussions in a calm atmos­ phere. Many investigators met for the 1st time at those symposia and a few fruitful collaborations have been verified. This e-book comprises the lawsuits of the VI overseas Symposium on Retinal Degenerations held November 6-10, 1994, in Jerusalem. As with the opposite conferences, a few new components have been lined. One consultation used to be dedicated to apoptosis, a major procedure fascinated with telephone loss of life in inherited retinal degenerations. one other consultation was once on invertebrate photoreceptors, the place various mutations have now been pointed out that result in altered functionality or degeneration of the retina. All contributors have been invited to put up chapters and so much complied. We thank them for his or her contributions.

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Collins RJ, Harmon BV, Souvlis T, Pope JH, Kerr JF. Effects of cycloheximide on B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemic and normal lymphocytes in vitro: induction of apoptosis. Br J Cancer 1991 ;64:518-522. 27. Belloma G, Perotti M, Taddei F et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces apoptosis in mammary adenocarcinoma cells by an increase in intranuclear free Ca2+ concentration and DNA fragmentation. Cancer Res 1992;52: 1342-1346. 28. Chang GQ, Hao Y, Wong F. Apoptosis: Final common pathway of photoreceptor death in rd, rds and rhodopsin mutant mice.

The morphology of photoreceptor chromatin and the time of appearance of apoptotic bodies, however, are different from that described in many other cell types. No peripheral chromatin clumping occurs after light exposure but rather a progressive "in situ" condensation of the central parts leaving a highly condensed endstage nucleus. The occurrence of presumed apoptotic bodies is seen only 24 h after light exposure. At this time point, cellular fragments resulting from necrotic cell death are also found and cannot consistently be distinguished from late stage apoptotic bodies.

3. , Barthel, G. , 1990, Determination of the length of the histological stages of apoptosis in normal liver and in altered hepatic foci ofrats, CarCinogenesis, 11 :847-53. 4. Buttke, T. M. and Sandstrom, P. , 1994, Oxidative stress as a mediator of apoptosis, Immunol Today, 15:7-10. 5. Chang, G. , Hao, Y. and Wong, F, 1993, Apoptosis: final common pathway of photoreceptor death in rd, rds, and rhodopsin mutant mice, Neuron, 11:595-605. 6. , Sherman, Y. and Ben-Sasson, S. , 1992, Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation, J Cell Bioi, 119:493-501 .

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