By Le Desmedt

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The regions of high coverage are known as islands. Since the coverage in islands is higher than in the surrounding regions, then according to Eq. 13 Reconstructed and unreconstructed surfaces for the three low index planes of Pt: (a) (100) plane, (i) (1 × 1) unreconstructed surface, (ii) quasi-hexagonal (hex) reconstructed surface; (b) (110) plane, (i) (1 × 1) unreconstructed surface, (ii) missing row (1 × 2) reconstructed surface; (c) (111) plane, (i) (1 × 1) unreconstructed surface (Pt(111) is stable against reconstruction).

To minimize the surface energy, the surface atoms reorganize the bonding among themselves. This leads to surfaces – called reconstructions – with periodicities that differ from the structure of the bulk-terminated surface. For semiconductors and polar surfaces it is the rule rather than the exception that the surfaces reconstruct. 9 Some commonly observed adsorbate structures on low index face-centred cubic (fcc) planes. √ √ (a) fcc(111), (i) (1 × 1), (ii) (2 × 2), (iii) ( 3 × 3). (b) (i) fcc(100)–c(2 × 2), (ii) fcc(110)–c(2 × 2).

Defects as well as substitutional or interstitial impurities (dopants) also modify the optical and electronic properties as well as the chemistry of oxides and semiconductors. Because of the multifarious crystal structures exhibited by oxides and the strong role played by ubiquitous defects, it is more difficult to present general patterns in structure and reactivity [9]. Many oxides are insulators with band gaps in excess of 6 eV, such as SiO2 (silica, quartz, glass, 35 different crystalline forms), Al2 O3 (alumina, corundum or α-alumina as well as γ -alumina, which has a defect spinel structure, and several others) and MgO (magnesia with a NaCl structure).

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