By W. P. Wadman, C. M. J. Sluijsmans, L. C. N. De La Lande Cremer (auth.), H. G. Van Der Meer, R. J. Unwin, T. A. Van Dijk, G. C. Ennik (eds.)

On the get together of its twenty-fifth anniversary, in 1985, the Netherlands Society for Grassland and Fodder vegetation (NVWV) agreed to prepare a world Symposium on a subject matter with regards to in depth grass and fodder construction platforms. The subject chosen used to be "Animal manure on grassland and fodder plants: Fertilizer or waste?" This Symposium was once prepared less than the auspices of the ecu Grassland Federation and held on the overseas Agricultural Centre in Wageningen from 31 August to three September 1987. the issues attached with the disposal of animal waste have got a lot realization in recent times, specially in areas with extensive animal of animal manure in line with hectare agricul­ husbandry. while the creation tural land elevated strongly, the necessity for it lowered end result of the advent of inexpensive inorganic fertilizers that are more uncomplicated to address and feature a extra trustworthy impression on crop progress. as a result, many farmers put off animal manure as affordably as attainable, while fending off harm to grassland and vegetation and paying little recognition to potent use of the vegetation food inside the manure. current practices of manure dealing with and alertness usually bring about environmental difficulties. the increase in information of those difficulties renewed curiosity in percentages to enhance the usage of food from animal manure in crop creation. study in this subject has been inspired in lots of international locations over the last decade and the purpose of this Symposium was once to study and check present-day knowledge.

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Extra info for Animal Manure on Grassland and Fodder Crops. Fertilizer or Waste?: Proceedings of an International Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 31 August–3 September 1987

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Nitrogen balance of cows fed fresh herbage or a combination of herbage and maize silage (51/49 on DM basis) Ration Herbage Herbage + maize silage N intake (gday-I) 626 (100%) 494 (79%) N excretion (gday-I) milk faeces 107 (100%) 118 (110%) 158 urine 361 (100%) 178 198 (72%) Efficiency (%) 17 (100%) 24 (141 %) 24 decrease of the ammonia concentration in the rumen when supplementing N-rich forages [8, 23]. The effect on N excretion will be less than with supplementation of maize silage, because of the higher N content in concentrates.

However, there are indications that milk production of grazing dairy cows not receiving supplementation is limited to 20-25 kg day-l by the restricted intake of energy [14] and by an insufficient supply of absorbable amino acids in the small intestine [4]. The inadequate supply of amino acids in the small intestine would arise from the excessive degradation of protein from fresh forages (Tables 5 and 6). This excessive loss of protein N in the forestomachs can not be compensated for by microbial synthesis.

Nitrogen losses from manures will be dealt with in a separate contribution [12]. Here only the role of copper (Cu) in chemo-denitrification is mentioned. It has been shown in laboratory experiments that the rate of nitrate reduction under neutral to alkaline conditions is sharply increased in the presence of Cu. With pig slurry providing the soil with large amounts of Cu, chemo-denitrification may contribute substantially to N loss under certain conditions (Hofman and Van Cleemput, unpublished results).

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