By Michael R. King

This accomplished paintings discusses novel biomolecular surfaces which were engineered to both keep watch over or degree mobile functionality on the atomic, molecular, and mobile degrees. each one bankruptcy offers genuine effects, strategies, and professional views of the way cells engage with biomolecular surfaces, with specific emphasis on interactions inside of complicated mechanical environments similar to within the cardiovascular approach. moreover, the e-book offers targeted insurance of irritation and mobile immune reaction as an invaluable version for the way engineering thoughts and instruments will be successfully utilized to advanced structures in biomedicine.

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34 CONTROL OF ENDOTHELIAL CELLADHESION BY MECHANOTRANSMISSION A large number of biomechanical studies indicate that both hemodynamic shear stress and substrate stretch directly impact the composition and form of the ECM. However, the effects of these force-induced matrix remodeling events on cellular signaling and function remain to be elucidated. Presumably, matrix adaptation occurs in parallel with cytoskeletal and focal adhesion reorganization. The structural reorganization may impart strain between these structures, and the compositional changes are likely to alter biochemical signaling near these locations.

1998). Even in the absence of cells, stretching a fibronectin-coated flexible substrate by 30% enhanced the binding of soluble fibronectin to the surface by greater than sevenfold, indicating that mechanical forces are transduced into increased biochemical CANDIDATE MECHANISMS FOR SENSING AND TRANSMITTING MECHANICAL CUES 43 affinity that promotes ECM assembly. The mechanism is hkely to involve force-dependent alterations in the fibronectin molecule. In one estimate, a force on the order of piconev^tons induces unfolding of fibronectin type III domains from an estimated length of 4 nm to 29 nm (Erickson, 1994).

As discussed in Chapter 1, substrate rigidity guides cell migration rate and direction through a process of durotaxis. , 2000). Pulling the substrate with the microneedle served to increase the tension applied through the substrate to focal adhesions near the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts, and the cells increased their lamellipod spreading and migration toward the microneedle. Conversely, when the microneedle was pushed toward the leading edge of cells to decrease the substrate tension, the leading edge retracted, and lamellipodial extension began at the trailing edge.

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