By Kathy Stuart

This ebook offers a social and cultural background of "dishonorable humans" (unehrliche Leute), an outcast workforce in early sleek Germany. Executioners, skinners, grave-diggers, shepherds, barber-surgeons, millers, linen-weavers, sow-gelders, latrine-cleaners, and bailiffs have been one of the "dishonorable" by way of advantage in their trades. It indicates the level to which dishonor made up our minds the lifestyles possibilities and self-identity of those humans. Taking Augsburg as a first-rate instance, it investigates how honorable estates interacted with dishonorable humans, and exhibits how the toxins anxieties of early smooth Germans established social and political family members inside honorable society.

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Additional info for Defiled Trades and Social Outcasts: Honor and Ritual Pollution in Early Modern Germany

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The reception of the Reformation in Augsburg followed class lines. The overwhelming majority of the artisans sympathized with the evangelical movement by the mid-s. The expulsion of a popular preacher in  sparked a riot, and Augsburg experienced iconoclastic unrest. Fearing for Augsburg’s trade relations and political connections with the Habsburgs, the majority of patricians, most notably the Fuggers, remained loyal to the Catholic church.  Seven years later, in , Emperor Charles V abolished the guild constitution.

Leipzig, ), p. ; on Munich see Michael Schattenhofer, ‘‘Hexen, Huren, und Henker,’’ Oberbayerisches Archiv  (), –, ; on Strasbourg see Brucker, Polizeiordnungen, p. . In Cologne the executioner received regular payments from public prostitutes at least until . See Franz Irsigler and Arnold Lasotta, Bettler und Gauner, Dirnen und Henker. Außenseiter in einer mittelalterlichen Stadt. Ko¨ln, – (Munich, ), pp. –. On Memmingen see Helmut Schuhmann, Der Scharfrichter.

By the early sixteenth century they founded a second private society, the Mehrer der Gesellschaft (Improvers of Society), which incorporated those members of Augsburg’s economic elite who had married into patrician families. Mehrer were allowed to join in the patrician sociability of the Herrenstube, they were socii patriciorum (companions of the patricians). The purpose of this society was to let the relatives of patricians partake of the social prestige of the patrician estate without fully accepting them into the patriciate.

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