By James Wood (Auth.)

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Speed v) and directions in the solid angle d£2 about _fi will pass through the end of the cylinder in time dt. 3Ua) particles will pass through the surface of area dA in time dt. It follows that the integrand in eq. 34) is equal to the number of particles with energy E which will pass through unit area perpendicular to the x-direction per unit time in the direction of £ . Therefore the integration in eq. 34) of this flow over all directions in space, gives the net number of particles which cross the unit area per unit time.

5, and N is the product of any other modifying factors. For external radiation, N = 1, and hence for situations of interest to us, we may write, H = D x Q . 11+) The special unit of dose quivalent is the rem. The rem. The rem is the special unit of dose quivalent. D is expressed in rads, H is in rems. 14), when H (rem) = D (rad) x Q (dimensionless). 15) It follows that if for some radiation the quality factor Q is unity, then an absorbed dose of 1 rad of that radiation gives a dose equivalent of 1 rem.

E. 01 J/kg . 001 rad and is abbreviated mrad. (A new unit called the gray (Gy) is proposed by the ICRU to replace the rad, where 1 Gy = 100 rad). Absorbed dose rate. e. g. rad/s, mrad/h, etc. Particle fluence. e. 6) — 2 ~l ~2 —1 Typical units of flux density are cm s or m s Kerma. e. K=—f . T) dm The special unit of kerma is the rad. The word kerma is an acronym from kinetic energy _re leased in material. It is a quantity closely related to absorbed dose, and as it is usually more convenient to calculate, in many radiation protection applications where the concern is with neutrons or gamma rays, kerma is often considered equivalent to absorbed dose.

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