By Ashim K. Datta

Providing a starting place in warmth and mass delivery, this ebook covers engineering ideas of warmth and mass move. the writer discusses organic content material, context, and parameter regimes and provides sensible functions for organic and biomedical engineering, business meals processing, environmental regulate, and waste administration. The ebook includes end-of-chapter difficulties and sections highlighting key innovations and significant terminology It bargains cross-references for simple entry to comparable components and suitable formulation, in addition to designated examples of shipping phenomena, and outlines of actual techniques. It covers mechanisms of diffusion, capillarity, convection, and dispersion.

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Sample text

4 is the general governing equation for energy transfer in one dimension cartesian coordinate system with constant thermal properties. This equation is also known as the energy equation or the heat equation. Often, the equation of continuity or mass conservation (see Eqn. 16 on page 229) ∂u =0 ∂x is used to write an alternate form of Eqn. 5) generation Note that the convective term has been simplified. 1 Meaning of Each Term in the Governing Equation Although Eqn. 4 looks complex with all the different terms, the good news is that we will never try (in this text) to solve it keeping all the terms.

This net transfer of energy due to random molecular motion is termed as the diffusion of energy. In a solid, translational and rotational motions are restricted. As the temperature of one area of a material increases, the molecules in that area vibrate more and bump into neighboring molecules. This contact between molecules imparts some of the vibrational motion of the first molecule to the second molecule, which then begins to vibrate to a greater extent. This trend continues throughout the material, spreading heat energy by the introduction of increased vibrational motion.

Since energy transfer takes place only when two bodies are not in equilibrium, the subject of energy transfer is sometimes described as non-equilibrium thermodynamics. As thermodynamics does not provide rate information, additional rate laws are defined in non-equilibrium thermodynamics to study the rates of energy transfer. The two rate laws that will be defined in this text are the Fourier’s law of energy diffusion (Chapter 2) and Fick’s law of mass diffusion (Chapter 10). 3 Temperature in Living Systems Most organisms live within a narrow temperature range, with a maximum temperature becoming more disastrous than a minimum temperature.

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