By A. F. J. Levi

Electric and mechanical engineers, fabrics scientists and utilized physicists will locate Levi's uniquely useful 2006 clarification of quantum mechanics precious. This up to date and extended variation of the bestselling unique textual content now covers quantization of angular momentum and quantum verbal exchange, and difficulties and extra references are integrated. utilizing real-world engineering examples to have interaction the reader, the writer makes quantum mechanics available and suitable to the engineering pupil. quite a few illustrations, routines, labored examples and difficulties are integrated; Matlab resource codes to help the textual content can be found from

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Example text

In nature, refractive index in a transparent material usually takes on a positive value. If one of either or is negative, refractive index is imaginary and electromagnetic waves cannot propagate. It is common for metals to have negative values of . Free electrons of mass m in a metal can collectively oscillate at a long-wavelength natural frequency called the plasma frequency, p . In a three-dimensional gas of electrons of density n the plasma frequency is p = ne2 / 0 m 1/2 which for m = m0 and 1021 cm−3 < n < 1023 cm−3 gives 1 eV < p < 12 eV.

Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053121 (2006). 13. K. Yano et al. Proc. IEEE 87, 633 (1999) and S. Huang et al. IEEE Trans. Nanotech. 3, 210 (2004). 3 CLASSICAL ELECTROMAGNETISM Often, analysis of a complicated field is simplified by decomposing the field into plane wave components. 76) where k = 2 / is called the wave number, which is measured in inverse meters (m−1 ), and is the wavelength measured in units of meters (m). 77) where = 2 is the angular frequency measured in radians per second (rad s−1 ), = 1/ is the frequency measured in cycles per second or hertz (Hz), and is the period measured in seconds (s).

The permittivity of free space is 0 = 8 854 187 8 × 10−12 F m−1 , and the permeability of free space, measured in henrys per meter, is 0 = 4 × 10−7 H m−1 . √ The speed of light in free space is c = 1/ 0 0 = 2 997 924 58 × 108 m s−1 , and the impedance in free space is Z0 = 0 / 0 or approximately 376 73 . The use of vector calculus to describe Maxwell’s equations enables a very compact and efficient description and derivation of relationships between fields. Because of this, it is worth reminding ourselves of some results from vector calculus.

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