By Robin Liu, Abraham P. Lee

The target of this booklet is to supply up to date assurance of a few of the rising advancements within the box of built-in DNA biochips. it is going to end up an invaluable resource of data for researchers within the box and if you are only getting into the sector of biochip examine.

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Extra info for Integrated Biochips for DNA Analysis (Biotechnology Intelligence Unit)

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Identification ofa virus subtype can be realized by molecular identification ofthe subtype ofviral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes. 23 In addition. new human strains ofvirus can arise by reassortment or antigenic shifts when two or more subtypes are circulating in the human population. 2S Maintenance of a subtype in the human population can also occur by antigenic drifi," which occurs when genetic mutations ofthe HA and NA genes create virons that escape inunune surveillance. These mutations arise as a result of viral polymerase infidelity.

For our experiments, we chose sequences that represent subtype H9N2 (GenBank accession numbers AF 156378 and AF 222654 respectively). Probes were tiled by one nucleotide to cover the sequences ofinterest and probes were designed with a Tm ofapproximately 55°C. Four probes were designed for each nucleotide to be examined mat were identical except for the 5' nucleotides, which contained either an A, C, T, or G (see Fig. 60 The chips with this design were hybridized with both HA and NA gene targets prepared from Influenza A isolates frominfected~ilandChicken(A/~il/HongKonglG1I97(H9N2)andA/Chicken/Hong KonglNT17/99 (H9N2)).

Differential expression between normal and tumor samples is also evident and expression differences have been validated in several ways. 7, suggestingthat differential expression in FFPE-derived RNAs parallels that observed in intact RNAs. 28,29 The consequences ofsuch a phenomenon are apparent if the two alleles differ in sequence in the same cell, presentingthe possibility ofexpressing two transcripts with different protein coding potential or mRNA stability. Two alleles ofa particular gene can be expressed at different levels due to gene imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, differential local promoter activity, or regulatory polymorphisms affecting transcription.

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