By Oppenheim J.J., Howard O.M.Z., Goetzl E.
This introductory evaluate serves to introduce the reader to numerous households of mobile chemoattractants together with cytokines often called chemokines, as neuropeptides, parts of the supplement cascade, and cyclooxygenase pathways. those ligands percentage the skill to make use of seven transmembrane (STM) G protein-coupled receptors. As is correct of alternative cyto-kines, those ligands are multifunctional and, as well as mobilizing inflammatory cells to websites of an infection and harm, act on a large spectrum of progenitor cells and on nonleukocytes. hence, a few of these ligands perform fetal improvement, others on hematopoiesis on trafficking and homing of cells to tissues and organs, at the induction of inflammatory and immune responses, and on regulating mobilephone adhesion and angiogenesis. we are going to additionally evaluation stories that a variety of viruses and microorganisms have tailored and discovered to avoid those mediators of host protection through generating agonists or antagonists or, as illustrated by means of HIV-1, by utilizing chemokine receptors as access websites for mobile invasion.
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Extra resources for Chemotactic Factors, Neuropeptides, and Other Ligands for Seven Transmembrane Receptors
White, J. , Reape, T. , Foley, J. , Schmidt, D. , Groot, P. H. , and Macphee, C. (1997). Cloning, in vitro expression and functional characteriazation of a novel human CC chemokine in the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) family (MCP-4) that binds and signals through the CC chemokine receptor 2B. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 16404±16413. Chemotactic Factors, Neuropeptides, and Other Ligands for Seven Transmembrane Receptors 1015 Bhoola, K. , Figeroa, C. , and Worthy, K. (1992). Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens and kininases.
S. (1997). Molecular cloning of leukotactin-1: a novel human b-chemokine, a chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and a potent agonist at CC chemokine receptors 1 and 3. J. Immunol. 159, 5201±5205. Youn, B. , Zhang, S. , Broxmeyer, H. , and Kwon, B. S. (1998). Characterization of Ckb8 and Ckb8-1: two alternatively spliced forms of human b-chemokine, chemoattractants for neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, and potent agonists at CC chemokine receptor 1. Blood 91, 3118±3126.
Lewis, D. J. Zachman, E. , Rice, K. , and Chrousos, G. P. (1996). In vivo characterization Chemotactic Factors, Neuropeptides, and Other Ligands for Seven Transmembrane Receptors 1021 of antalarmin, a nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist: Suppression of pituitary ACTH release and peripheral inflammation. Endocrinology 137, 5747± 5750. , Li, S. , and Camp, R. D. (1989). Novel neutrophil-stimulating peptides. Immunol. Today 10, 146±147. White, J. , Lee, J. , Young, P.
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