By Olov Lindberg, Lars Ernster

Chondria of tumours, for instance. are characterised through a low breathing energy. that may be linked to a poor mitochondrial association. because the physiological issue of mobilephone respiratory seems to lie within the formation of ATP. it will look that the standards accountable for the splitting of ATP with the formation of phosphate esters. also are respon sible for the aforementioned keep watch over meChanism. The enzyme glucokinase, that is recognized to be topic to hormonal keep watch over within the intact mobile constitution, is essentially absolute to cytoplasmic debris. The activation tactics consist within the creation via the mitochondria of precursot.s to the ingredients synthesized via the telephone. hence, except the enzymic spectrum precious for oxidative procedures and the formation of ATP. the mitochondria additionally comprise particular activation mechanisms, the character of that is decided via the kind of telephone during which they're con tained. Specialization could be saw within the sarcosomes of muscle tissues, which serve to supply the contractile components with A TP: within the mito chondria of kidney tubules, that are involved within the techniques of re absorption; in liver mitochondria, which focus on the construction of acetoacetate and within the synthesis of citrulline and detoxication conjugates of fragrant compounds: and never least within the mitochondria of embryonic tissue which. based on the existing stag.e of improvement and the a part of the embryo during which they're located, play an lively half within the differentiation method.

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Tn the present case. ~ bound to the mitochondria in only a small fraction of its total amount, by no means implies that this small fraction cannot carry out its function with perfect efficiency in a reaction chain. without even constituting a limiting factor (cf. PoTTER. RECKNAGEL and HuRLBERT 1951). We cannot, by and large. see any reason why GREEN's hypothesis, according to which the cyelophora~e system is associated with the mitochondria, should not be accepted. '~ school towards recent discoveries concerning the mitochondrial structure, and especially towards the question of the mitochondrial membraJH'.

It was with this system that most. of the earlier findings with regard to the cytochrome system wei'(~ IIHHie. Aftc1· very detailed and brilliant studies of the KEILir-; complex and of an analogous JHeparation from kidney, SLATER (t94R. 1949 a. Enzymic Processes Concerned in the Physiological Function 39 b, c, 1950a, b) has in recent years accumulated evidence of a link between the diaphorase and succinic oxidase systems. He has suggested the following scheme for the two oxidative pathways: DPNH 2 - -------+ flavoproteins-" , · · d e h y d rogenase ;:::: cy t .

The second group of experiments, designed to elucidate the status of phosphorylation in the cytochrome system, involved the use of substrates which are directly oxidized by the cytochrome system. These experiments were made by FRIEDKIN and LEHNINGER (1949 b). No phosphorylation was found when glutathione, cysteine, hydroquinone and p-phenylenediamine were employed as substrates. Some phosphorylation was, however, obtained with ascorbic acid. This phosphorylation was low in comparison with that obtained, for example, with malate.

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