By Elliott M. Antman MD

Manage cardiovascular difficulties extra effectively with the main complete source to be had! A relied on significant other to Braunwald's center Disease, Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 4th Edition addresses pharmacological, interventional, and surgical administration techniques for every kind of heart problems. This sensible and clinically concentrated cardiology reference deals a balanced, whole method of the entire traditional and strange parts of heart problems and particular remedies in a single concise quantity, equipping you to make the easiest offerings for each patient.

  • Understand present techniques to treating and coping with cardiovascular patients
  • for long term wellbeing and fitness, for advanced difficulties, and for strange cardiac events.

  • Benefit from the monstrous event of Elliott M. Antman, MD, Marc S. Sabatine, MD, and a bunch of alternative revered professionals, who supply sensible, evidence-based rationales for all of modern-day medical therapies.
  • Expand your wisdom past pharmacologic interventions with whole assurance of the best interventional and gadget cures getting used today.
  • Easily reference Braunwald's middle affliction, ninth Edition for extra details on subject matters of interest.

  • Make the simplest use of the newest genetic and molecular therapies
  • in addition to advanced cures for center failure.

  • Cut correct to the solutions you wish with an more advantageous specialise in clinically suitable details and a lowered emphasis on pathophysiology.
  • Stay present with ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines and the easiest how you can enforce them in medical practice.
  • Get an more suitable visible perspective with an all-new, full-color layout throughout.
  • Access the total contents online and download images at

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Additional resources for Cardiovascular therapeutics : a companion to Braunwald's Heart disease

Example text

Prevention is assumed to cost $2,000. Decision nodes (filled square) are whether or not to use preventive therapy. Chance nodes (filled circles) show occurrences of death, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), other disease states, and alive and well with percentages and long-term costs of each. In this example, diagnostic tests are considered within the overall cost of preventive therapy, as are any other events and treatments that an individual might have received, such as complications of CABG, AMI, and so on.

Figure 1–20 shows the effects of varying the cost of preventive therapy in high-risk (A) and low-risk (B) situations. The cost-effectiveness results are linearly related to the cost of prevention and sensitive to it; that is, cost effectiveness varies greatly as the cost of prevention changes. , reduction of CABG, PTCA, acute MI, and so on) in totality equals the costs of prevention. This is lower in the high-risk situation, $108 versus $913. The other value of interest is what the cost of prevention would have to be in the low-risk situation for it to be “cost effective,” $50,000/YLS (in this example)—in this case, $544.

Payments are the monies paid to providers for services. Actual costs are divided into direct and indirect costs. 115,116 Indirect cost in health economic parlance may refer to one of two concepts. In hospital parlance, indirect costs refer to overhead costs such as for food, mortgage, and so on, and are roughly equivalent to direct, nonmedical costs. 107-111,114,115 Pain, grief, and suffering related to illness are called intangible costs. , mortgages, depreciation, and so on). 116 Average (or unit) costs are total costs divided by total units, whereas incremental costs are those incurred by adding one additional unit of service, such as a program or an option.

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