By Albert Lardo, Zahi A. Fayad, Nicolas Chronos, Valentin Fuster
An authoritative, updated source at the usually intimidating technical enigma of CMR, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: verified and rising purposes consolidates a large and turning out to be physique of knowledge right into a unmarried balanced resource. This hugely illustrated textual content presents present and useful info on proven foundational functions of CMR. Its presentation of cutting-edge healing functions in a variety of phases of improvement provides the reader a glance into the way forward for CMR. The editors have chosen bankruptcy authors from a extensive box of educational and personal perform clinicians, educational and commercial biomedical engineers, and MR technologists.
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Additional info for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: Established and Emerging Applications
Using this vocabulary, we then give a broad summary of the agents used in current clinical practice, as well as a number of agents that are under development in both commercial and academic settings. Introduction to MRI biophysics In this section, we describe the general vocabulary of contrast agents. This section assumes that the reader has a basic understanding of MRI vocabulary (see Chapter 1). Contrast agents shorten T1 and T2. While there are many mechanisms by which this occurs, and considerable chemistry, physical chemistry, and biophysics that can be applied to understand or predict these mechanisms, in many cases the effect of these mechanisms can be reduced to a single constant, called ‘relaxivity’.
There are three sources of the ﬂuctuating ﬁeld: electronic relaxation, rotational diffusion, and chemical exchange. Electronic relaxation is a fast process (1/T1e ranges from 105 to 1013 sϪ1). As electrons within the ion traverse electronic states, a fluctuating field is set up. If electronic relaxation is too fast, then there will be little energy transfer to the proton. 27 As an example, the terbium and dysprosium ions Tb3ϩ and Dy3ϩ, which both have magnetic moments even greater than that of Gd3ϩ, are poor relaxation agents because they have too fast electronic relaxation rates.
The ratio r2/r1 for USPIOs is significantly larger than for Gd complexes and r2 increases with increasing magnetic field. When there is aggregation of crystals, which is the case in SPIOs, longitudinal relaxivity tends to decrease (r1 drops) and transverse relaxivity increase (r2 increases). g. references 58 and 59). The effect of aggregation of crystals is that the aggregate itself can be considered a large magnetized sphere whose magnetic moment increases with increasing field strength. This gives rise to susceptibility effects, and the SPIOs can act as T2* relaxation agents.
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