By P.M. Priyadarshan

In the second one version of this booklet, the starting place, maintenance and latex harvest from the Hevea rubber tree are handled succinctly. New chapters were incorporated on Propagation platforms and Genetic assets. the significance of Heterozygosis and Breeding is a brand new subject matter for the part on Breeding. a brand new bankruptcy on Genomics and Molecular Breeding that specializes in the most recent developments on gene mapping, marker assisted choice and stimulation has been further. finally, ‘textboxes’ that spotlight issues and themes of important curiosity are incorporated within the new addition.

Natural rubber has been a necessary commodity not just for the tire but additionally for greater than 50,000 items that holds elasticity as an characteristic. The leading resource of common rubber world wide is Hevea brasiliensis. Hevea rubber tree is a wonderful instance of ways a soil-tree-atmosphere procedure can paintings in tandem. The retrieval of rubber via ‘injuring’ the tree on trade days or as soon as in 3 days or as soon as in seven days, is certainly a different association universally that guarantees source of revenue to the planter virtually all year long. each molecule of rubber is the result of meticulous biochemical changes.  hence the biology of Hevea rubber tree itself is a topic that aggregates technology and expertise for the conclusion of its commercial utility.

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Photosynthetic rates were higher in the shaded leaves with low PPFD. , 2002). , 1996). , 1999). Under an ideal climate, leaf photosynthesis saturated at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m-2 s-2 (Nataraja and Jacob, 1999). , 1999). Photosynthetic response to higher temperatures was similar in different clones. Subjecting RRIM 600 and PB 260 to a wide range of temperatures between 10 and 45°C, Kositsup et al. (2007) concluded that the rate of photosynthesis stayed constant between 23 and 37°C and decreased above or below this range.

In this section, aspects of ecophysiology are considered in some detail. Before the rubber tree can produce latex it needs to attain physiological maturity and the first step in this development is maturation of the leaves, the organs of photosynthesis. Leaves attain maturity in around 35–40 days after emergence. In addition to phytohormonal equilibrium, leaf maturity can be Plant Structure and Ecophysiology 41 regarded in terms of CO2 balance (Samsuddin and Impens, 1979) and the maturity leads to a series of characteristics such as leaf expansion, chlorophyll accumulation and formation of photosynthetic apparatus (photosystems I and II and carboxylative enzymes), stomata, cell wall and supporting structures.

If seeds are not sown in 10–15 days, they lose viability on storage as a result of the production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN). Seed filling with ultimate growth of the endosperm ensures the germination of the seed. Hevea seeds are recalcitrant (Roberts, 1973). For storage, seeds can be mixed with sawdust and kept at 7°C to have vigour for up to 4 months (Ang, 1976). Treatment with polyethylene glycol 1500 improved storage up to 6 months with 25% germination (Normah and Chin, 1995). As mentioned above, Hevea seeds lose viability due to production of HCN during storage.

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