By B. Manderscheid, E. Matzner, K.-J. Meiwes, Y. Xu (auth.), Jiří Černý, Martin Novák, Tomáš Pačes, R. Kelman Wieder (eds.)

This exact factor of Water, Air and Soil toxins deals unique contributions from BIOGEOMON, a global symposium on surroundings habit and the evaluate of built-in tracking of small catchments, held in Prague, Czech Republic, in September 1993. The assembly attracted approximately two hundred scientists from 27 nations on 5 continents. BIOGEOMON was once a unfastened continuation of one other overseas assembly, GEOMON, which was once held in Prague in 1987. either sym­ posia supplied a discussion board for the dialogue of principles on environmental difficulties in western and jap Europe, with vital contributions from the yankee continent. With the dramatic cave in of the iron curtain, it used to be our wish that extra so than GEOMON, BIOGEOMON would offer possibilities for the unfastened alternate of principles, fostering the advance of analysis collaborations among its individuals. With foreign openness comes the expanding consciousness that each indus­ trialized country has its personal legacy of environmental degradation. Anthropogenic affects vary in severity and scale; air and water shipping of toxins remodel neighborhood affects into nearby and worldwide ones, ignoring political barriers and eco­ nomic changes. Environmental outcomes of anthropogenic actions frequently are detectable on the surroundings point. therefore, the problem of surroundings technological know-how, and to the people who perform it, is to boost a finished realizing of atmosphere functionality long ago and at the present, and to use such knowing towards minimizing destiny insults to the neighborhood, nearby, and worldwide environment.

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Extra resources for Biogeochemical Monitoring in Small Catchments: Refereed papers from BIOGEOMON, The Symposium on Ecosystem Behaviour: Evaluation of Integrated Monitoring in Small Catchments held in Prague, Czech Republic, September 18–20, 1993

Example text

1. Trends in atmospheric pollutant chemistry and openfieid precipitation Trends in the mean monthly concentrations of S02 and N02 in air, over the period 1987-1993, are presented in Figure 3. 1). However, S02 concentrations were highest during winter 1986-1987 and 1990-1991 compared to the rest of the period. , 1995; Laurila, 1990). 09). 149). This could be related to the present increase in N pollution in Europe (Granat, 1993; Matzner and Meiwes, 1994). No increasing trend in atmospheric N02 concentrations in the USA since the early 1960's is evident (Driscoll and Likens, 1993).

Production (Reaction from left to right) H+[aq(rain)] -+ H+[aq(soilsolution)] S02 + H20 + 11202 -+ SO~- + 2H+ C02 + H20 -+ HCO) + H+ HA-+A- +H+ NHt + ROH ;=' RNH2 + H20 + H+ NO;- + ROH + H+ ;=' RNH2 + 202 XOm+n + mH20 ;=' XO~:+n + 2mH+ M n+ + nROH -+ (RO)nM + nH+ M n+ + 112nH20 ;=' 1I2nM2/n + nH+ RnA + nH20 ...... A n- + nROH + nH+ H+[aq(drainage)] ...... H+[aq(soilsolution)] Cation weathering and ion exchange Biological accumulation of anions Output of H+ with drainage water Reverse weath. and retention of anions Nitrogen transformations Consumption (Reaction from right to left) Hydrogen ion producing and consuming processes used for the calculations of the H+ budgets.

Concentrations are stable for Na+, K+, Cl- and HCO], whereas significant decreasing trends are noticed for conductivity, and Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO~- concentrations in this basin. These changes over time occur in both stream and springwaters, but are more obvious in springwaters which represent the present-day chemical internal status of the basin which is less influenced on a short-time scale by fluctuation in atmospheric inputs. , 1992b). The decreases ;. 5 [\. 1 Ii T +8 15 -. I r 0 11111 n- 463 - -3 T-+22 r - 0066 .

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