By Leonard Hamilton

If this have been a standard textbook of neuroanatomy, many pages will be dedicated to an outline of the ascending and descending pathways of the spinal twine and several other chapters to the association of the sensory and motor platforms, and, might be, a close dialogue of the neurological deficits that persist with quite a few sorts of harm to the fearful approach may even be incorporated. yet within the first draft of this e-book, the spinal wire was once pointed out just once (in a determine caption of bankruptcy 2) that allows you to illustrate the which means of longitudinal and move sections. Later, it was once determined that even this cursory remedy of the spinal wire went past the scope of this article, and a carrot was once substituted because the version. The association of the sensory and motor structures and of the peripheral frightened method have obtained comparable assurance. therefore, this isn't a standard textual content, and as a possible reader, you'll be resulted in ask, "What's during this booklet for me?" This e-book is directed essentially towards these scholars of habit who're both bored or anxious through the medically orientated texts which are replete with medical symptoms, complicated terminology, and prolix descriptions of the human mind, an organ which is rarely really visible of their laboratories. I should still hasten so as to add, besides the fact that, that this article can also serve a few function when you learn and even perhaps benefit from the conventional texts.

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19 NEUROANATOMICAL PROCEDURES AND TERMINOLOGY 20 CHAPTER 2 The longitudinal axis (nose-to-tail) is described in terms of anterior or rostral direction (toward the nose) and the posterior or caudal direction (toward the tail). The term cranial is also used occasionally to denote the anterior direction. The transverse axis (belly-to-spine) is described in terms of the ventral or inferior direction (toward the belly surface) and the dorsal or superior direction (away from the belly surface). Terms Defining Planes of Sections (See Fig.

One of the most consistent measures of the progress of development is the extent of myelinization of fibers. In the peripheral nervous system, this insulating lipid layer is formed by Schwann cells; in the central nervous system it is formed by oligodendrocytes, specialized glial cells that may contain up to 70% of the cholesterol content of the brain. In the rat, the process of myelinization first begins in the spinal nerves and is completed by about 2 days after birth. The process is completed at progressively later ages for the spinal cord and cranial nerves (7 days postnatally), brain stem and thalamus (10-12 days postnatally), and cortex (14-26 days postnatally).

In panel B. the transection (cut) of a fiber always results in anterograde (ag) degeneration and can also lead to retrograde (rg) degeneration including the cell body. In panel C, it is shown that afferent (afO fibers travel toward the brain, whereas efferent (eff) fibers travel away from the brain; within the brain, fibers that travel toward the cortex are corticopetal (cp), whereas fibers that leave the cortex are termed cor· ticofugal (cO. In panel D, the connections between homotopic regions such as X and X' are termed commissures; connections between contralateral regions are termed crossed projections (e.

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