By R. M. Latanision (auth.), R. M. Latanision, J. R. Pickens (eds.)
It is now greater than a hundred years given that convinced damaging results at the ductility of iron have been first linked to the presence of hydrogen. not just is hydrogen embrittlement nonetheless a big industri al challenge, however it is secure to assert that during a mechanistic experience we nonetheless have no idea what hydrogen (but no longer nitrogen or oxygen, for instance) does on an atomic scale to urge this degradation. a similar applies to different examples of environmentally-induced fracture: what's it concerning the ubiquitous chloride ion that induces untimely catastrophic fracture (stress corrosion cracking) of typically ductile austenitic stainless steels? Why, furthermore, are halide ions difficult however the nitrate or sulfate anions now not deleterious to such stainless steels? Likewise, why are a few reliable metals embrit tled catastrophically by means of comparable liquid metals (liquid steel embrit tlement) - copper and aluminum, for instance, are embrittled via liquid mercury. in brief, regardless of all that we may perhaps find out about the fabrics technological know-how and mechanics of fracture on a macroscopic scale, we all know little in regards to the atomistics of fracture within the absence of environmental interactions or even much less while embrittlement phe nomena corresponding to these defined above are concerned. nevertheless, it truly is attention-grabbing to notice that actual chemists and floor chemists even have pursuits within the comparable varieties of interactions that happen on an atomic scale while metals akin to nickel or platinum are used, for instance, as catalysts for chemical reactions.
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Additional info for Atomistics of Fracture
15,1157 (1981). W. H. , 16, (1982) in press. S. M. Latanision, unpublished research, 1982. GENERAL OVERVIEW: ATOMISTICS OF SURFACE REACTIONS T. E. Fischer Exxon Research and Engineering Company P. O. Box 45 Linden, New Jersey INTRODUCTION The adsorption of a molecule is the first step in the modification of the mechanical properties of a metal by the environment. Once adsorbed, the molecule can playa number of different roles that are relevant to the phenomena of fracture. It can react with the surface to form a coherent and stable layer that protects the solid from further influence from the environment; it can react with the solid to corrode it.
M. Latanision, M. Kurkela andF. Lee, in "Effect of Hydrogen on Behavior of Materials", AlME, in press. W. Thompson and loM. W. G. Fontana, Plenum Press, New York (1980). P. G. Hines in "Stress Corrosion Cracking and Embrittlement", Wiley, New York (1956), p. 107. A. Champion, in "Symposium on Internal Stresses in Metals and Alloys", Institute of Metals, London (1948), p. 468. L. Logan, J. Res. N. B. , 48: 99 (1952). J. Forty, in "Physical Metallurgy of Stress Corrosion Cracking", Interscience, New York (1959), p.
In addition, of course, questions such as materials for storage and transmission or distribution of hydrogen (perhaps in this case materials that are already in place) will become increasingly important. I suspect that if the previous decades of research and engineering on environmentally-induced embrittlement were considered exciting, the next decades will be even more so and the impact of this effort will be of even greater consequence. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The paper reflects work performed in the Corrosion Laboratory at MIT on programs sponsored largely by the Office of Naval Research, Contract No.
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