By Martin Rowland, Steve Potter

Excellent for revision, those publications clarify the unit requisites, summarise the content material and contain specimen questions with graded answers.
Martin Rowland has taught and tested A-level Biology for over 30 years and is at present a Chair of Examiners in Biology. he's co-author of the winning titles AQA Biology for AS and AQA Biology for A2, released by way of Hodder schooling.

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Extra resources for AQA AS Biology Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Biology and Disease

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The Golgi apparatus modifies proteins (for example by adding carbohydrates to them to make glycoproteins) that are synthesised by the ribosomes and transported by the rough ER. It releases vesicles (sacs) containing the modified proteins. ●● The plasma membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell. ●● Microvilli are finger-like folds of the plasma membrane that increase the surface area available for absorption of molecules. Absorption from the small intestine: why plasma membranes are a barrier Key concepts you must understand Figure 30 shows that in order to pass from the lumen of the gut into the bloodstream, digested molecules pass through two plasma membranes of an epithelial cell.

Moves in. ●● Exhaling creates a higher pressure in the lungs than in the atmosphere and so air moves out. The amount of air we inhale in one minute is the pulmonary ventilation rate. It Knowledge check 20 depends on: If you know the pulmonary ventilation rate and the breathing rate, how would you find the tidal volume? e. breathing rate) pulmonary ventilation rate = tidal volume × ventilation rate Gas exchange in the alveoli Concentration gradients allow oxygen to diffuse from the air in the alveoli into the red blood cells and carbon dioxide to diffuse from the blood plasma into the alveoli.

There is a response to foreign antigens on the surface of our own cells that are infected by viruses or are cancerous. This is the cell-mediated response, brought about by T lymphocytes (T cells). The humoral response and the cell-mediated response both depend on an initial recognition process by white blood cells called macrophages. The initial immune response to a foreign antigen is called a primary immune response. It destroys the microorganisms or toxins and creates memory cells. These cells have an immunological memory and ‘recognise’ the same antigen if it enters the body again.

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