By Sandra Dawson (auth.)

For scholars who have to enhance their knowing of companies and the folk in them. it's also correct to people who are starting a expert research of organisations, quite because it is helping to bridge the space among conception and perform. it truly is absolutely revised and updated.

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Output control appears to provide management with an opportunity to facilitate discretion and delegation while maintaining overall (and particularly financial) control. However, there can be managerial problems in that the semi-auto nomous centres so created may be resistant to change, and, of course, there are some situations where the output cannot be simply and easily measured and specified. As the earlier discussion of incentive payment systems suggested, to overemphasise one easily measurable aspect of performance may well incline the job-holder to neglect other more important, but less easily measurable, aspects.

Expectancy theory This theory appears to be more promising, at least in terms of acknowledging complexity. Broadly this approach predicts that behaviours that are foilowed will reflect an individual's selection of goals and what she has learned and believes will produce the rewards she is looking for (Vroom, 1964; Porter and Lawler, 1968). For example, take an individual who has a strong need for financial security and social status. If he is given a task to do and promised a high salary and promotion , then he will expend effort on doing the work to the extent that he believes: 14 A Framework for Organisational Analysis 1.

Herzberg's work, like that of McGregor, captured the imagination of many managers and influenced their approach to work . However, there is little conclusive evidence to support it as a universal truth. Indeed as we shall see, the links he postulated between satisfaction , motivation and performance are the subject of considerable criticism (Vroom , 1964). Herzberg's distinction between hygienic factors and motivating factors derives from work done with colleagues which identified two types of reward: extrinsic and intrinsic (Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman , 1959).

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