By Aram Mekjian (auth.), Michel Baranger, Erich Vogt (eds.)

As a lot accidentally as via layout, the current quantity comes towards having a unmarried topic than any of our past volumes. That subject matter is the homes of nuclear energy capabilities or, on the other hand, the matter of line spreading. the road spreading or energy functionality thoughts are crucial for the nucleus due to its many levels of freedom. the outline of the nucleus is approached by utilizing version wave functions-for instance, the shell version or the collective model-in which one has truncated the variety of levels of freedom. The query then is how heavily do the version wave services correspond to the particular nuclear wave services which get pleasure from all of the levels of freedom of the nuclear Hamiltonian? extra accurately, one perspectives the version wave services as vectors in a Hilbert area and one perspectives the particular wave features as vectors spanning one other, better Hilbert house. Then the query is: how is a single-model wave functionality (or vector) unfold one of the vectors such as the particular wave capabilities? for instance we think of a version kingdom that's a shell-model wave functionality with a unmarried nucleon additional to a closed shell. one of these version nation is termed a single-particle wave functionality. on the strength of the single-particle waVe functionality one of many genuine nuclear wave features may well resemble the single-particle wave functionality closely.

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Specifically, the basis for this model was Bohr's idea that a particle inside the nucleus interchanges energy very rapidly with other nucleons, so that any particle crossing the nuclear surface loses its energy and is absorbed. Then, if many channels are open these conditions imply that it is very unlikely that an incident projectile will reappear in the entrance channel. , e- iKr (52) and that the logarithmic derivative at the nuclear surface is j =ru' - u I r=R =-iKR (53) The above results (easily extended to higher partial waves) are sufficient to calculate the cross section, since, once the interior wave function is known, the exterior wave function and phase shift are obtained by the continuity conditions on the wave function at the nuclear surface.

Key+ 66a). 60 d. .. • ..... " . 30 Ep (MeV) Fig. 13. Distribution of widths of the resonances seen in 4°Ar(p, p)4°Ar. After Mekjian and MacDonald (MM 67). narrow resonances or fine structure in the cross section. The energy dependence in the elastic cross section is shown in Fig. 12. We note the following features in this energy dependence. 87 MeV shows pronounced structure. This structure is associated with the presence of the isobaric analog of the fourth excited state of Ar4 1, with J7l = i-, seen in (d,p) experiments (KHB 61).

2. Distribution of widths for various mixinl! situations. After Lane (La 69), Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions and Intermediate Structure The phase angle 17 x. ) satisfies the equation tan 2X. ) (E. _ Ed)2 _ (rdt / 2)2 (50) r. for various mixing situations are shown in Fig. 2. 3. 1. 1. Potential Scattering Model One of the earliest attempts at a description of nuclear reactions was due to Bethe (Bet 35), who described the scattering of a nucleon from a nucleus in terms of a simple real potential well [also consider by Bethe (Bet 35) was a square well with a large imaginary part].

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