By S. Y. Lee
The advance of excessive power accelerators started in 1911, while Rutherford stumbled on the atomic nuclei contained in the atom. considering that then, development has been made within the following: (1) improvement of excessive voltage dc and rf accelerators, (2) success of excessive box magnets with first-class box caliber, (3) discovery of transverse and longitudinal beam focusing rules, (4) invention of excessive strength rf assets, (5) development of excessive vacuum know-how, (6) attainment of excessive brightness (polarized/unpolarized) electron/ion resources, (7) development of beam dynamics and beam manipulation schemes, resembling beam injection, accumulation, gradual and quick extraction, beam damping and beam cooling, instability suggestions, and so on. The affects of the accelerator improvement are evidenced by means of the various ground-breaking discoveries in particle and nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, condensed subject physics, biomedical physics, medication, biology, and commercial processing. This ebook is meant for use as a graduate or senior undergraduate textbook in accelerator physics and technology. it may be used as preparatory path fabric for graduate accelerator physics scholars doing thesis study. The textual content covers ancient accelerator improvement, transverse betatron movement, synchrotron movement, an creation to linear accelerators, and synchrotron radiation phenomena in low emittance electron garage earrings, creation to big issues akin to the loose electron laser and the beam-beam interplay. consciousness is paid to derivation of the action-angle variables of the part area, as the transformation is critical for knowing complex issues similar to the collective instability and nonlinear beam dynamics. every one part is by means of routines, that are designed to augment the concept that mentioned and to resolve a practical accelerator layout challenge.
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Additional resources for Accelerator Physics, Second Edition
Some basic accelerator components are described in the following subsections. II. 40 The DC acceleration column is usually used in low energy accelerators such as the Cockcroft-Walton, Van de Graaff, etc. The rf acceleration cavity provides a longitudinal electric field at an rf frequency that ranges from a few hundred kHz to 10-30 GHz. 18) where AV = VQ sin(wrft + >) is the effective gap voltage, wrf is the rf frequency, Vo is the effective peak accelerating voltage, and 4> is the phase angle.
The total volume of iron-core is proportional to the cubic power of the beam rigidity Bp. Thus the weight of iron-core increases rapidly with its K-value: Weight of iron = W ~ K15 ~ (Bp)3, where Bp is the beam rigidity. Typically, the magnet for a K-100 cyclotron weighs about 160 tons. 24 The design of beam extraction systems in cyclotrons is challenging. Let VQ be the energy gain per revolution. /V-th revolution. The radius r of the beam at the iV-th revolution becomes r =I (^) "V*. e. the orbiting radius increases with the square root of the revolution number N.
For a quadrupole field with Bz = Kx, Bx = Kz, show that the magnetic potential is <&m = —Kxz. The equipotential curve is xz = constant. Thus the pole shapes of quadrupoles are hyperbolic curves with xz = o 2 /2. The pole-tip field is jBpoie tip = Ka. 9 Tesla. The achievable gradient is B\ = Bv0\e tip/a- Show that the gradient field is Bx = 2naNI/a2, where NI is the number of ampere-turns per pole, and a is the half-aperture of the quadrupole. The inductance in an ideal quadrupole is _ 8M0iV2l 2 a2 (Xc o4 8noN2e 12x?
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