By C. Paul Vincent

The failure of Germany's first republic after international struggle I has aroused numerous many years of focused examine. Synthesizing a lot of that research, this old dictionary will improve an figuring out of the Weimar Republic. It comprises entries on participants as different as Bertolt Brecht, Adolf Hitler, the physicist Lise Meitner, and the movie director Georg W. Pabst. There also are entries defining such occasions because the Beerhall Putsch and the French career of the Ruhr; a number of companies and associations, resembling the Frankfurt university; the complicated array of political events; and treaties and agreements, reminiscent of the Locarno Treaties of 1925 and the 1929 younger Plan.

Arranged as an A to Z reference resource for the examine of contemporary German background, the dictionary supplies substance to cultural phrases (such as Dada), to movie and tune, and to suggestions, reminiscent of Anti-Semitism and Justice, deemed important to an knowing of the interval. All entries finish with bibliographic references.

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In 1925 he published Das Nordenbuch (The book of the north), an acclaimed selection exalting Teutonic culture. Meanwhile, his Nietzsche study was followed by solid books on Heinrich von Kleist and Adalbert Stifter. In 1933 he delivered a lecture at Cologne tracing the roots of Germany’s ‘‘awakening’’—that is, the Nazi awakening—to George’s poetry. Although no member of the George-Kreis openly declared himself hostile to the Nazis, Bertram was the only one who joined the NSDAP and found favor with it.

He returned to Switzerland and taught systematic theology at Basel until 1962. REFERENCES: McCormack, Karl Barth’s Critically Realistic Dialectical Theology; Scholder, Churches and the Third Reich; Torrance, Karl Barth. * Born in the East Prussian village of Darkehmen, he worked in his youth as an attorney’s aide in Ko¨nigsberg. A troubled experience, Bauer was politicized by the work and in 1895 founded the Union of Office Employees. He directed the Berlin-based Central Workers Secretariat of Free Trade Unions from 1903; in 1908 he became Vice Chairman of the General Commission of German Trade Unions, a position he retained until 1918.

Although he was replaced in November 1930 by Mies, who refocused studies on pure craftsmanship, the politicians had grown weary of the school’s modernism. By January 1932 a Nazi city council was demanding closure; thus, the Bauhaus relocated to Berlin in October. Under pressure from the NSDAP, Mies closed the school on 2 April 1933; its product was deemed illustrative of entartete Kunst (degenerate art). Many Bauhaus teachers and pupils scattered throughout Europe and America. Although it rarely had more than two hundred students, its long-term impact on design concepts transcended its humble size.

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